When does oxidative stress occur? Β 

By: Manoj Prasad

Oxidative stress occurs when free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce more than antioxidants can neutralize. Many reasons cause oxidative stress.

Cigarette smoke, industrial chemicals, and UV radiation from the sun can increase free radicals and ROS in the body.

1. Environmental factorsΒ 

Poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, and chronic stress can increase free radical generation or deplete antioxidant defenses, causing oxidative stress.

2. Lifestyle factorsΒ 

Due to cellular metabolism and inflammatory changes, metabolic diseases like diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia can increase oxidative stress. Β 

3. Metabolic factorsΒ 

The inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory disorders such rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and some malignancies can cause oxidative stress.

4. Inflammatory conditionsΒ 

As we age, our bodies produce less antioxidants and repair oxidative damage, increasing the risk of oxidative stress and its health effects. Β 

5. Aging processΒ 

During cellular respiration, mitochondria, cell powerhouses, produce ROS. Damaged mitochondria can cause excessive ROS production and oxidative stress. Β 

6. Mitochondrial dysfunctionΒ 

HIV, sepsis, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's can cause oxidative stress through inflammation and mitochondrial malfunction. Β 

7. Infection and diseaseΒ 

Understanding the causes of oxidative stress is essential for creating preventive and treatment measures to reduce its health risks.

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